Content - Stratospheric Sulfur

SSiRC - Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate

Team members

Coordination Team:

  • Claudia Timmreck (Germany)
  • Larry Thomason (USA)
  • Stefanie Kremser (New Zealand)
  • Jean-Paul Vernier (USA)

Steering Committee:

  • Juan-Carlos Antuna (Cuba)
  • John Barnes (USA)
  • Terry Deshler (USA)
  • Suvarna Fadnavis (India)
  • Markus Hermann (Germany)
  • Graham Mann (UK)
  • Thomas Peter (Switzerland)
  • Fred Prata (Norway)
  • Markus Rex (Germany)
  • Alan Robock (USA)
  • Marc von Hobe (Germany)

Activity description

Figure: Schematic overview of the structure of SSiRC.

The stratospheric aerosol layer is a key component in the climate system. It affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere directly through interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly through its effect on stratospheric ozone. Because the stratospheric aerosol layer is prescribed in many climate models as well as Chemistry-Climate Models (CCMs), model simulations of future atmospheric conditions and climate generally do not account for the interaction between the aerosol-sulfur cycle and resultant impacts on the climate system. Present understanding of how the stratospheric aerosol layer may be affected by future climate change and how the stratospheric aerosol layer may drive climate change is, therefore, very limited.

The purposes of SSiRC (Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate) include: (1) providing a coordinated structure for the various individual activities already underway in different research centres; (2) encouraging and supporting new instrumentation and measurements of sulfur-containing compounds, such as COS, DMS, and non-volcanic SO2 in the UTLS globally; and (3) initiating new model/data intercomparisons. SSiRC is expected to feed into the GeoMIP activity as it deals with more fundamental questions relating to sulfur and aerosols in the stratosphere. 

25-28 April 2016
Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate
Potsdam, Germany
Further Information can be found at
27 April 1 May 2015
SSiRC SSG Meeting
Bern, Switzerland   

22-26 September 2014
SSiRC SSG Meeting
Bern, Switzerland

28-30 October 2013
Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
workshop circularposter, webpage:, presentations are available at
31 October-02 November 2012
SSiRC team meeting
Bern, Switzerland

Published results

Journal publications:

Andersson, S. M., Martinsson, B. G., Vernier, J.-P., Friberg, J., Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Hermann, M., van Velthoven, P. F. J., Zahn, A., 2015: Significant radiative impact of volcanic aerosol in the lowermost stratosphere. Nat. Commun., 6: 7692, doi: 10.1038/ncomms8692, 2015.  

Andersson S.M., B.G. Martinsson, J. Friberg, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, A. Rauthe-Schöch, M. Hermann, P.J.F. van Velthoven and A. Zahn, 2013: Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol from eruptions of Kasatochi, Sarychev and Eyjafjallajökull in 2008 – 2010 based on CARIBIC observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1781-1796, doi:10.5194/acp-13-1781-2013.

Arfeuille, F., B. P. Luo, P. Heckendorn, D. Weisenstein, J. X. Sheng, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, S. Bronnimann, L. W. Thomason, and T. Peter, 2013: Modeling the stratospheric warming following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption: uncertainties in aerosol extinctionsAtmos. Chem. Phys.13, 11221-11234, doi:10.5194/acp-13-11221-2013.

Aquila, V., Garfinkel, C. I., Newman, P. A., Oman, L. D., & D. W. Waugh, 2014: Modifications of the quasi‐biennial oscillation by a geoengineering perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layerGeophys. Res. Let.41, doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1944-8007.

Aquila, V., Oman, L. D., Stolarski, R., Douglass, A. R., & P. A. Newman, 2013: The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo at Southern and Northern MidlatitudesJournal of Atmospheric Science70(3), 894–900. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0143.1.

Aydin, M., J. E. Campbell, T. J. Fudge, K. M. Cuffey, M. R. Nicewonger, K. R. Verhulst, and E. S. Saltzman, 2016: Changes in atmospheric carbonyl sulfide over the last 54,000years inferred from measurements in Antarctic ice cores. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(4), 1943-1954, DOI: 10.1002/2015JD024235.

Bândă, N., M. Krol, M. van Weele, T. van Noije, P. Le Sager, and T. Röckmann, 2016: Can we explain the observed methane variability after the Mount Pinatubo eruption? Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(1), 195-214, doi:10.5194/acp-16-195-2016.

Bândă, N., M. Krol, T. van Noije, M. van Weele, J. E. Williams, P. Le Sager, U. Niemeier, L. Thomason, and T. Röckmann, 2015: The effect of stratospheric sulfur from Mount Pinatubo on tropospheric oxidizing capacity and methaneJ. Geophys. Res.120, 1202-1220, doi:10.1002/2014JD022137.  

Belviso, S., I. M. Reiter, B. Loubet, V. Gros, J. Lathiere, D. Montagne, M. Delmotte, M. Ramonet, C. Kalogridis, B. Lebegue, N. Bonnaire, V. Kazan, T. Gauquelin, C. Fernandez, and B. Genty, 2016: A top-down approach of surface carbonyl sulfide exchange by a Mediterranean oak forest ecosystem in southern France. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(23), 14909-14923.

Berdahl, M., and A. Robock, 2013: Northern Hemispheric cryosphere response to volcanic eruptions in the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project 3 last millennium simulations J. Geophys. Res.118, 12359-12370, doi:10.1002/2013JD019914.

Berkelhammer, M., H. C. Steen-Larsen, A. Cosgrove, A. J. Peters, R. Johnson, M. Hayden, and S. A. Montzka, 2016: Radiation and atmospheric circulation controls on carbonyl sulfide concentrations in the marine boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121(21), 13113-13128.

Berthet, G., et al., 2017: Impact of a moderate volcanic eruption on chemistry in the lower stratosphere: balloon-borne observations and model calculations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17(3), 2229-2253, doi:10.5194/acp-17-2229-2017.

Brühl, C., J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, M. Höpfner, and N. Glatthor, 2015: Stratospheric sulfur and its implications for radiative forcing simulated by the chemistry climate model EMACJ. Geophys. Res.120, 2103–2118, doi:10.1002/2014JD022430.

Campbell, J. E., M. E. Whelan, U. Seibt, S. J. Smith, J. A. Berry, and T. W. Hilton, 2015: Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraintsGeophys. Res. Lett.42, 3004-3010, doi:10.1002/2015GL063445. 

Campbell, P., M. Mills, and T. Deshler, 2014: The global extent of the mid stratospheric CN layer: A three-dimensional modeling studyJ. Geophys. Res.119, doi:10.1002/2013JD020503.

Campbell, P., and T. Deshler, 2014: Condensation nuclei measurements in the midlatitude (1982–2012) and Antarctic (1986–2010) stratosphere between 20 and 35 kmJ. Geophys. Res.119, doi:10.1002/2013JD019710.

Canty, T., N. R. Mascioli, M. D. Smarte, and R. J. Salawitch, 2013: An empirical model of global climate – Part 1: A critical evaluation of volcanic coolingAtmos. Chem. Phys.13, 3997-4031, 2013,, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3997-2013.

Carboni, E., R. G. Grainger, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, G. E. Thomas, R. Siddans, A. J. A. Smith, A. Dudhia, M. E. Koukouli, and D. Balis, 2016: The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(7), 4343-4367.

Carn, S. A., L. Clarisse, and A. J. Prata, 2016: Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing. J. Volc. Geoth. Res., 311, 99-134. 

Carn, S. A., V. E. Fioletov, C. A. McLinden, C. Li, and N. A. Krotkov, 2017: A decade of global volcanic SO2 emissions measured from space. Sci. Rep., 7, 44095, doi:10.1038/srep44095.

Chane Ming, F., D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, F. Gheusi, and Y. Kuleshov, 2016: Gravity-wave effects on tracer gases and stratospheric aerosol concentrations during the 2013 ChArMEx campaign. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(12), 8023-8042.

Cook, T., 2016: A decade of progress in stratospheric aerosol researchEos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO050721.

Damadeo, R. P., J. M. Zawodny, and L. W. Thomason, 2014: Reevaluation of stratospheric ozone trends from SAGE II data using a simultaneous temporal and spatial analysis. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14(24), 13455-13470.

Damadeo, R. P., J. M. Zawodny, L. W. Thomason, and N. Iyer, 2013: SAGE Version 7.0 Algorithm: Application to SAGE II. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3539-3561, doi:10.5194/amt-6-3539-2013.

Dhomse, S S, K. M. Emmerson, G. W. Mann, N. Bellouin, K. S. Carslaw, M. P. Chipperfield, R. Hommel, N. L. Abraham, P. Telford, P. Braesicke, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, F. O’Connor, O. Morgenstern, J. A. Pyle, T. Deshler, J. M. Zawodny, and L. W. Thomason, 2014: Aerosol microphysics simulations of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption with the UM-UKCA composition-climate model. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11221–11246.

Du, Q. Q., C. Zhang, Y. Mu, Y. Cheng, Y. Zhang, C. Liu, M. Song, D. Tian, P. Liu, J. Liu, C. Xue, and C. Ye,  2016: An important missing source of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: Domestic coal combustion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(16), 8720-8727.

English, J. M., O. B. Toon, and M. J. Mills, 2013: Microphysical simulations of large volcanic eruptions: Pinatubo and Toba. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1880–1895, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50196.

Ferraro, A. J., and H. G. Griffiths, 2016: Quantifying the temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on global-mean precipitation in a multi-model ensemble. Env. Res. Lett., 11(3), 034012.

Fioletov, V. E., C. A. McLinden, N. Krotkov, C. Li, J. Joiner, N. Theys, S. Carn, and M. D. Moran, 2016: A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(18), 11497-11519. 

Friberg J., B. G. Martinsson, S. M. Andersson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, M. Hermann, P. F. J. van Velthoven and A. Zahn, 2014: Sources of increase in LMS sulfurous and carbonaceous aerosol background concentrations during 1999 – 2008 derived from CARIBIC flights. Tellus, 66, 23428, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v66.23428.

Friberg J., B.G. Martinsson, M.K. Sporre, S.M. Andersson, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, M. Hermann, P.F.J. van Velthoven, and A. Zahn, 2015: Influence of volcanic eruptions on midlatitude upper tropospheric aerosol and consequences for cirrus clouds. Earth and Space Science, 2, doi: 10.1002/2015EA000110, 2015.

Fromm, M., G. Kablick, G. Nedoluha, E. Carboni, R. Grainger, J. Campbell, and J. Lewis, 2014: Correcting the record of volcanic stratospheric aerosol impact: Nabro and Sarychev Peak. J. Geophys. Res., 119(17), 10,343-310, 364.

Garny, H. and W. J. Randel, 2013: Dynamic variability of the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed in potential vorticity and correlations with tracer distributions. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 13,421–13,433, doi:10.1002/2013JD020908.

Glatthor, N., et al., 2017: Global carbonyl sulfide (OCS) measured by MIPAS/Envisat during 2002–2012. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17(4), 2631-2652, doi:10.5194/acp-17-2631-2017.

Griessbach, S., L. Hoffmann, R. Spang, M. von Hobe, R. Müller, and M. Riese, 2016: Infrared limb emission measurements of aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9(9), 4399-4423. 

Gu, Y. X., H. Liao, and J. C. Bian, 2016: Summertime nitrate aerosol in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the South Asian summer monsoon region. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(11), 6641-6663. 

Guillet, S., et al., 2017: Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records. Nat. Geosci., 10(2), 123-128, doi:10.1038/ngeo2875.

Haywood, J. M., Jones, A. and G. S. Jones, 2013: The impact of volcanic eruptions in the period 2000-2013 on global mean temperature trends evaluated in the HadGEM2-ES climate model. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 15(2), 92-96, doi:10.1002/asl2.471.

Heng, Y., L. Hoffmann, S. Griessbach, T. Rößler, and O. Stein, 2016: Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale simulations. Geosci. Model Dev., 9(4), 1627-1645. 

Hervig, M. E., C. G. Bardeen, D. E. Siskind, M. J. Mills, and R. Stockwell, 2017: Meteoric smoke and H2SO4 aerosols in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(2), 1150-1157, DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072049.

Hoffmann, L., T. Rößler, S. Griessbach, Y. Heng, and O. Stein, 2016: Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: Impact of meteorological data products. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121(9), 4651-4673.

Höpfner, M., N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, J. Orphal, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, and C. D. Boone, 2013: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) as observed by MIPAS/Envisat: temporal development and spatial distribution at 15-45 km altitude. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10405-10423, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10405-2013.

Höpfner, M., C. D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Günther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H. C. Pumphrey, W. G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann, and K. Wissmüller, 2015: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7017-7037, doi:10.5194/acp-15-7017-2015.

Iacovino, K., K. Ju-Song, T. Sisson, J. Lowenstern, R. Kuk-Hun, J. Jong-Nam, S. Kun-Ho, H. Song-Hwan, C. Oppenheimer, J. O. S. Hammond, A. Donovan, K. W. Liu, and R. Kum-Ran, 2016: Quantifying gas emissions from the “Millennium Eruption” of Paektu volcano, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea/China. Sci. Adv., 2(11), DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600913

Irvine, P. J., B. Kravitz, M. G. Lawrence, and H. Muri, 2016: An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering. Wires Clim. Change, 7(6), 815-833. 

Irvine, P. J., et al., 2017: Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering. Earth's Future, 5(1), 93-106, DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000389.

Ivy, D. J., S. Solomon, D. Kinnison, M. J. Mills, A. Schmidt, and R. R. Neely, 2017: The influence of the Calbuco eruption on the 2015 Antarctic ozone hole in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071925.

Jégou F., G. Berthet, C. Brogniez, J.-B. Renard, P. François, J.M. Haywood, A. Jones, Q. Bourgeois, T. Lurton, F. Auriol, S. Godin-Beekmann, C. Guimbaud, G. Krysztofiak, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, and D. Daugeron, 2013: Stratospheric aerosols from the Sarychev volcano eruption in the 2009 Arctic summer. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6533-6552, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6533-2013.

Jones, A. C., J. M. Haywood, A. Jones, and V. Aquila, 2016: Sensitivity of volcanic aerosol dispersion to meteorological conditions: A Pinatubo case study. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121(12), 6892-6908. 

Jones, A. C., J. M. Haywood, and A. Jones, 2016: Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(5), 2843-2862. 

Kashimura, H., M. Abe, S. Watanabe, T. Sekiya, D. Ji, J. C. Moore, J. N. S. Cole, and B. Kravitz, 2017: Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17(5), 3339-3356, doi:10.5194/acp-17-3339-2017.

Khaykin, S. M., et al., 2017: Variability and evolution of the midlatitude stratospheric aerosol budget from 22 years of ground-based lidar and satellite observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17(3), 1829-1845, doi:10.5194/acp-17-1829-2017.

Kleinschmitt, C., O. Boucher, S. Bekki, F. Lott, and U. Platt, under review: LMDz-S3A-v1: A sectional stratospheric sulphate aerosol in the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model. Geosci. Model Dev., doi:10.5194/gmd-2017-31

Kooijmans, L. M. J., N. A. M. Uitslag, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, S. A. Montzka, and H. L. Chen, 2016: Continuous and high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of COS, CO2, CO and H2O using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS). Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9(11), 5293-5314. 

Kovilakam, M., and T. Deshler, 2015: On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 8426–8447, doi:10.1002/2015JD023303.

Kravitz, B., A. Robock, S. Tilmes, O. Boucher, J.M. English, P. J. Irvine, A. Jones, M. G. Lawrence, M. MacCracken, H. Muri, J. C. Moore, U. Niemeier, S. J. Phipps, J. Sillmann, T. Storelvmo, H. Wang, and S. Watanabe, 2015: The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): Simulation Design and Preliminary Results. Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3379-3392, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3379-2015.

Kremser, S., et al., 2016: Stratospheric aerosol - Observations, processes, and impact on climateRev. Geophys., 54(2), doi:10.1002/2015rg000511.

Krysztofiak, G., Y. Té, V. Catoire, F. Jégou, and G. Berthet, 2014: Carbonyl sulfide variability with latitude in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-Ocean, 53, 1-13, QOS 2012 special issue, doi: 10.1080/07055900.2013.876609. 

Lee, C. L., and P. Brimblecombe, 2016: Anthropogenic contributions to global carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide and organosulfides fluxes. Earth Sci. Rev., 160, 1-18,

Lejeune, B., E. Mahieu, M. K. Vollmer, S. Reimann, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, and C. Servais, 2017: Optimized approach to retrieve information on atmospheric, carbonyl sulfide (OCS) above the Jungfraujoch station and change in its abundance since 1995. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., 186, 81-95,

Lennartz, S. T., C. A. Marandino, M. von Hobe, P. Cortes, B. Quack, R. Simo, D. Booge, A. Pozzer, T. Steinhoff, D. L. Arevalo-Martinez, C. Kloss, A. Bracher, R. Röttgers, E. Atlas, and K. Krüger, 2017: Direct oceanic emissions unlikely to account for the missing source of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 385-402, doi:10.5194/acp-17-385-2017.

MacMartin, D. G., and B. Kravitz, 2016: Dynamic climate emulators for solar geoengineering. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(24), 15789-15799.

MacMartin, D. G., B. Kravitz, J. C. S. Long, and P. J. Rasch, 2016: Geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols: What do we not know after a decade of research? Earths Future, 4(11), 543-548.

Mallik, C., N. Chandra, S. Venkataramani, and S. Lal, 2016: Variability of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide at a semi-arid urban site in western India. Sci. Total Environ., 551-552, 725-737.

Martinsson B. G., J. Friberg, S. M. Andersson, A. Weigelt, M. Hermann, D. Assmann, J. Voigtländer, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, P. F. J. van Velthoven and A. Zahn, 2014: Comparison between CARIBIC aerosol samples analysed by accelerator-based methods and optical particle counter measurements. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2581-2596, doi:10.5194/amt-7-2581-2014.

Mateshvili, N., Fussen, D., Mateshvili, G., Mateshvili, I., Vanhellemont, F., Kyrölä, E., Tukiainen, S., Kujanpää, J., Bingen, C., Robert, C., Tétard, C., and E. Dekemper, 2013: Nabro volcano aerosol in the stratosphere over Georgia, South Caucasus from ground-based spectrometry of twilight sky brightness. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2563-2576, doi:10.5194/amt-6-2563-2013.

McLinden, C. A., V. Fioletov, M. W. Shephard, N. Krotkov, C. Li, R. V. Martin, M. D. Moran, and J. Joiner, 2016: Space-based detection of missing sulfur dioxide sources of global air pollution. Nat. Geosci., 9(7), 496-500, doi:10.1038/ngeo2724.

McLinden, C. A., V. Fioletov, N. A. Krotkov, C. Li, K. F. Boersma, and C. Adams, 2016: A Decade of Change in NO2 and SO2 over the Canadian Oil Sands As Seen from Space. Environ. Sci. Technol., 50(1), 331-337.

Mills, M. J., A. Schmidt, R. Easter, S. Solomon, D. E. Kinnison, S. J. Ghan, R. R. Neely III, D. R. Marsh, A. Conley, C. G. Bardeen, A. and Gettelman, 2016: Global volcanic aerosol properties derived from emissions, 1990-2014, using CESM1(WACCM). J. Geophys. Res. - Atmos., 121(5), 2332-2348.

Münch, S., and J. Curtius, 2016: Derivation of Antarctic stratospheric sulfuric acid profiles and nucleation modeling of the polar stratospheric CN layer. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-583.

Murphy, D. M., K. D. Froyd, J. P. Schwarz, and J. C. Wilson, 2014: Observations of the chemical composition of stratospheric aerosol particles. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 140, 1269–1278, doi:10.1002/qj.2213.

Neely R. R. III., O. B. Toon, S. Solomon, J.-P. Vernier, C. Alvarez, J. M., English, K. H. Rosenlof, M. J. Mills, C. G. Bardeen, J. S. Daniel, and J. P. Thayer, 2013: Recent anthropogenic increases in SO2 from Asia have minimal impact on stratospheric aerosol. Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 999–1004, doi:10.1002/grl.50263. 

Neely, R. R., III, P. Yu, K. H. Rosenlof, O. B. Toon, J. S. Daniel, S. Solomon, and H. L. Miller, 2014: The contribution of anthropogenic SO2 emissions to the Asian tropopause aerosol layerJ. Geophys. Res., 119, 1571-1579, doi:10.1002/2013JD020578.

Nowack, P. J., N. L. Abraham, P. Braesicke, and J. A. Pyle, 2016: Stratospheric ozone changes under solar geoengineering: implications for UV exposure and air quality. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(6), 4191-4203, doi:10.5194/acp-16-4191-2016.

Ogee, J., J. Sauze, J. Kesselmeier, B. Genty, H. Van Diest, T. Launois, and L. Wingate, 2016: A new mechanistic framework to predict OCS fluxes from soils. Biogeosci., 13(8), 2221-2240.

Oppenheimer, C., et al., 2017: Multi-proxy dating the ‘Millennium Eruption’ of Changbaishan to late 946 CE. Qua. Sc. Rev., 158, 164-171,

Pitari, G., D. Visioni, E. Mancini, I. Cionni, G. Di Genova, and I. Gandolfi, 2016: Sulfate aerosols from non-explosive volcanoes: Chemical-radiative effects in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Atmos., 7(7), 85, doi:10.3390/atmos7070085.

Pitari, G., G. Di Genova, E. Mancini, D. Visioni, I. Gandolfi, and I. Cionni, 2016: Stratospheric aerosols from major volcanic eruptions: A composition-climate model study of the aerosol cloud dispersal and e-folding time. Atmos., 7(6), 75, doi:10.3390/atmos7060075.

Pitari, G., I. Cionni, G. Di Genova, D. Visioni, I. Gandolfi, and E. Mancini, 2016: Impact of stratospheric volcanic aerosols on age-of-air and transport of long-lived species. Atmos., 7(11), 149, doi:10.3390/atmos7110149.

Popp, T., G. de Leeuw , C. Bingen, C. Brühl, V. Capelle, A. Chedin, L. Clarisse, O. Dubovik, R. Grainger, J. Griesfeller, A. Heckel, S. Kinne, L. Klüser, M. Kosmale, P. Kolmonen, L. Lelli, P. Litvinov, L. Mei, P. North, S. Pinnock, A. Povey, C. Robert, M. Schulz, L. Sogacheva, K. Stebel, D. Stein Zweers, G. Thomas, L. G. Tilstra, S. Vandenbussche, P. Veefkind, M. Vountas, and Y. Xue, 2016: Development, Production and Evaluation of Aerosol Climate Data Records from European Satellite Observations (Aerosol_cci). Remote Sens., 8(5), 421, doi:10.3390/rs8050421.

Predybaylo, E., G. L. Stenchikov, A. T. Wittenberg, and F. Zeng, 2017: Impacts of a Pinatubo-size volcanic eruption on ENSO. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 122(2), 925-947, DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025796.

Pumphrey, H. C., Read, W. G., Livesey, N. J., and Yang, K., 2015: Observations of volcanic SO2 from MLS on Aura. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 195-209, doi:10.5194/amt-8-195-2015.

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SPARC activity updates:

SPARC Newsletter No. 47, 2016, p. 31: The 2nd Workshop on Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate, by S. Kremser and L. Thomason

SPARC newsletter No. 43, 2014, p. 25: Report on the 1st Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate Workshop, by L. Thomason, S. Kremser, M. Rex, C. Timmreck, and J.-P. Vernier

SPARC Newsletter No. 39, 2012, p. 37: Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate (SSiRC), by M. Rex, C. Timmreck, S. Kremser, L. Thomason, J.-P. Vernier

SPARC, 2006: SPARC Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties (ASAP). L. Thomason and Th. Peter (Eds.), SPARC Report No. 4, WCRP-124, WMO/TD - No. 1295, available at

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