SSiRC – Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate

Activity Leaders
Landon Rieger (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada)
Anja Schmidt (DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling, Germany, & Meteorological Institute, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany)
Marc von Hobe (Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany)
Steering Committee
  • Juan Carlos, Antuña-Marrero (Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica, Universidad de Valladolid, España),
  • Terry Deshler (University of Colorado, Boulder, USA),
  • Suvarna Fadnavis (Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune, India),
  • Corinna Kloss (CNRS Orleans Campus, Orléans, France)
  • Mahesh Kovilakam (SSAI, Hampton, VA USA)
  • Eduardo Landulfo (Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), São Paulo, Brazil)
  • Graham Mann (School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK)
  • Landon Rieger (Activity lead; University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SA, Canada)
  • Andrew Rollins (NOAA, Boulder, CO USA)
  • Anja Schmidt (Activity lead; Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Oberpfaffenhofen-Wessling, Germany, and Meteorological Institute, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany)
  • Jean-Paul Vernier (NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, USA)
  • Marc von Hobe (Activity lead; Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany)
  • Yunqian Zhu (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA)

About SSiRC

SSiRC is an established SPARC (Stratosphere-Troposphere Processes and their role in Climate) activity, with SPARC being a core project within the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP).  SSiRC aims to foster collaboration across observational and modelling groups to better understand the stratospheric aerosol layer and the drivers for its observed variations. The abrupt volcanic enhancements of the stratospheric aerosol concentrations cause strong solar dimming and thereby surface cooling with important changes in circulation and atmospheric composition in response. SSiRC key science questions link with several foci of the WCRP grand challenges.

The stratospheric aerosol layer was discovered 60 years ago, but it still poses us riddles. Aerosol above 15 km forms an optically thin veil with a small well characterized impact on climate, but then, in explosive episodes, it can intensify dramatically due to massive, aperiodic volcanic eruptions.  Following such events, the stratospheric aerosol influences Earth’s climate by cooling the planet as a whole and creates potentially devastating changes to regional weather patterns, such as winter warming in the Northern Hemisphere and reducing summer monsoon rainfall over Africa and Asia. It also increases the probability of an El Niño in the following Northern Hemisphere winter. In the modern era, large volcanic events can temporarily slow the pace of anthropogenic global warming. While much is understood about the impact of stratospheric aerosol on climate, there are several open questions relevant to SSiRC, SPARC and the WCRP.

By addressing these questions, SSiRC aims at better constraining the pathways of stratospheric aerosol and its precursors from emission to radiative forcing. By raising these questions and highlighting their importance, SSiRC stimulates research in this area, research that is relevant to WCRP’s mission. SSiRC enables the assessment of our understanding the role of stratospheric aerosol in climate including the potential for catastrophic climate impacts following a major volcanic event and decoupling more moderate climate changes in the stratospheric aerosol burden from those attributable to human activities. SSiRC builds a community from different fields of study and fosters collaboration. SSiRC connects to other WCRP/SPARC activities including ACAM, OCTV-UTLS and CCMI.


2-5 April 2019
SSiRC SSG Meeting
Julich, Germany

18-23 March 2018
AGU Chapman Conference on Stratospheric Aerosol in the Post-Pinatubo Era: Processes, Interactions, and Importance
Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

25-28 April 2016
Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate
Potsdam, Germany
Further Information can be found at

27 April 1 May 2015
SSiRC SSG Meeting
Bern, Switzerland

22-26 September 2014
SSiRC SSG Meeting
Bern, Switzerland

28-30 October 2013
Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
workshop circularposter, webpage:, presentations are available at

31 October-02 November 2012
SSiRC team meeting
Bern, Switzerland

Published results

Journal publications (non-ehaustive list – please visit for a full reference list):

Aquila, V., C. Baldwin, N. Mukherjee, E. Hackert , F. Li, J. Marshak, A. Molod, and S. Pawson, 2021: Impacts of the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on surface temperatures and precipitation forecasts with the NASA GEOS subseasonal-to-seasonal system. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmospheres, 126, e2021JD034830, doi:10.1029/2021JD034830.

Antuña-Marrero, J.-C.,  G.W. Mann, J. Barnes, A. Rodríguez-Vega, S. Shallcross, S. S. Dhomse, G. Fiocco, and G. W. Grams, 2021: Recovery of the first ever multi-year lidar dataset of the stratospheric aerosol layer, from Lexington, MA, and Fairbanks, AK, January 1964 to July 1965, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4407–4423, doi:10.5194/essd-13-4407-2021.

Aubry, T.J., J. Staunton-Sykes, L. R. Marshall, J. Haywood, N. L. Abraham, A. Schmidt, 2021: Climate change modulates the stratospheric volcanic sulfate aerosol lifecycle and radiative forcing from tropical eruptions. Nat. Commun., 12, 4708, doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24943-7.

Bossolasco, A., F. Jegou, P. Sellitto, G. Berthet, C. Kloss, and B. Legras, 2021: Global modeling studies of composition and decadal trends of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2745–2764, doi:10.5194/acp-21-2745-2021.

Coupe, J., and Robock, A., 2021: The influence of stratospheric soot and sulfate aerosols on the Northern Hemisphere wintertime atmospheric circulation. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmospheres, 126, e2020JD034513. doi:10.1029/2020JD034513.

Davidson, C., Amrani, A., and Angert, A., 2021: Tropospheric carbonyl sulfide mass balance based on direct measurements of sulfur isotopes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 118, e2020060118. doi:10.1073/pnas.2020060118.

Kloss, C., G. Berthet, P. Sellitto, F. Ploeger, G. Taha, M. Tidiga, M. Eremenko, A. Bossolasco, F. Jégou, J.-B. Renard, and B. Legras, 2021: Stratospheric aerosol layer perturbation caused by the 2019 Raikoke and Ulawun eruptions and their radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 535–560, doi:10.5194/acp-21-535-2021.

Kloss, C., P. Sellitto, M. von Hobe, G. Berthet, D. Smale, G. Krysztofiak, C. Xue, C. Qiu, F. Jégou, I. Ouerghemmi and B. Legras, 2021: Australian Fires 2019–2020: Tropospheric and Stratospheric Pollution Throughout the Whole Fire Season. Front. Environ. Sci., 9, 652024, doi:10.3389/fenvs.2021.652024.

Lennartz, S. T., Gauss, M., von Hobe, M., and Marandino, C. A., 2021: Monthly resolved modelled oceanic emissions of carbonyl sulphide and carbon disulphide for the period 2000–2019, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2095–2110, doi:10.5194/essd-13-2095-2021.

Marshall, L. R., Schmidt, A., Johnson, J. S., Mann, G. W., Lee, L. A., Rigby, R., and Carslaw, K. S. (2021). Unknown eruption source parameters cause large uncertainty in historical volcanic radiative forcing reconstructions. J. Geophys. Res.: Atmospheres, 126, e2020JD033578, doi:10.1029/2020JD033578.

Visioni, D., D. G. MacMartin, B. Kravitz, O. Boucher, A. Jones, T. Lurton, M. Martine, M. J. Mills, P. Nabat, U. Niemeier, R. Séférian, and S. Tilmes, 2021: Identifying the sources of uncertainty in climate model simulations of solar radiation modification with the G6sulfur and G6solar Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10039–10063, doi:10.5194/acp-21-10039-2021.

Antuña-Marrero, J.-C., G. W. Mann, P. Keckhut, S. Avdyushin, B. Nardi, and L. W. Thomason, 2020: Shipborne lidar measurements showing the progression of the tropical reservoir of volcanic aerosol after the June 1991 Pinatubo eruption, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2843–2851, doi:10.5194/essd-12-2843-2020.

Kloss, C., P. Sellitto, B. Legras, J.-P. Vernier, F. Jégou, M. V. Ratnam, B. S. Kumar, B. L. Madhavan, G. Berthet, 2020: Impact of the 2018 Ambae eruption on the global stratospheric aerosol layer and climate. J.  Geophys. Res.: Atmospheres, 125, e2020JD032410, doi:10.1029/2020JD032410.

de Leeuw, J., A. Schmidt, C. S. Witham, N. Theys, I. A. Taylor, R. G. Grainger, R. J. Pope, J. Haywood, M. Osborne, and N. I. Kristiansen, 2021: The 2019 Raikoke volcanic eruption – Part 1: Dispersion model simulations and satellite retrievals of volcanic sulfur dioxide, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10851–10879, doi:10.5194/acp-21-10851-2021.

Feinberg, A., T. Sukhodolov, B.-P. Luo, E. Rozanov, L. H. E. Winkel, T. Peter, and A. Stenke, 2019: Improved tropospheric and stratospheric sulfur cycle in the aerosol–chemistry–climate model SOCOL-AERv2, Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3863–3887, doi:10.5194/gmd-12-3863-2019.

Andersson, S. M., Martinsson, B. G., Vernier, J.-P., Friberg, J., Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Hermann, M., van Velthoven, P. F. J., Zahn, A., 2015: Significant radiative impact of volcanic aerosol in the lowermost stratosphere. Nat. Commun., 6: 7692, doi: 10.1038/ncomms8692, 2015.

Andersson S.M., B.G. Martinsson, J. Friberg, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, A. Rauthe-Schöch, M. Hermann, P.J.F. van Velthoven and A. Zahn, 2013: Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol from eruptions of Kasatochi, Sarychev and Eyjafjallajökull in 2008 – 2010 based on CARIBIC observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1781-1796, doi:10.5194/acp-13-1781-2013.

Arfeuille, F., B. P. Luo, P. Heckendorn, D. Weisenstein, J. X. Sheng, E. Rozanov, M. Schraner, S. Bronnimann, L. W. Thomason, and T. Peter, 2013: Modeling the stratospheric warming following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption: uncertainties in aerosol extinctions. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11221-11234, doi:10.5194/acp-13-11221-2013.

Aquila, V., Garfinkel, C. I., Newman, P. A., Oman, L. D., & D. W. Waugh, 2014: Modifications of the quasi‐biennial oscillation by a geoengineering perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer. Geophys. Res. Let., 41, doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1944-8007.

Aquila, V., Oman, L. D., Stolarski, R., Douglass, A. R., & P. A. Newman, 2013: The Response of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide to the Eruption of Mt. Pinatubo at Southern and Northern Midlatitudes. Journal of Atmospheric Science, 70(3), 894–900. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-12-0143.1.

Aydin, M., J. E. Campbell, T. J. Fudge, K. M. Cuffey, M. R. Nicewonger, K. R. Verhulst, and E. S. Saltzman, 2016: Changes in atmospheric carbonyl sulfide over the last 54,000years inferred from measurements in Antarctic ice cores. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121(4), 1943-1954, DOI: 10.1002/2015JD024235.

Bândă, N., M. Krol, M. van Weele, T. van Noije, P. Le Sager, and T. Röckmann, 2016: Can we explain the observed methane variability after the Mount Pinatubo eruption? Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(1), 195-214, doi:10.5194/acp-16-195-2016.

Bândă, N., M. Krol, T. van Noije, M. van Weele, J. E. Williams, P. Le Sager, U. Niemeier, L. Thomason, and T. Röckmann, 2015: The effect of stratospheric sulfur from Mount Pinatubo on tropospheric oxidizing capacity and methane. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 1202-1220, doi:10.1002/2014JD022137.

Belviso, S., I. M. Reiter, B. Loubet, V. Gros, J. Lathiere, D. Montagne, M. Delmotte, M. Ramonet, C. Kalogridis, B. Lebegue, N. Bonnaire, V. Kazan, T. Gauquelin, C. Fernandez, and B. Genty, 2016: A top-down approach of surface carbonyl sulfide exchange by a Mediterranean oak forest ecosystem in southern France. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(23), 14909-14923.

Berdahl, M., and A. Robock, 2013: Northern Hemispheric cryosphere response to volcanic eruptions in the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project 3 last millennium simulations.  J. Geophys. Res., 118, 12359-12370, doi:10.1002/2013JD019914.

Berkelhammer, M., H. C. Steen-Larsen, A. Cosgrove, A. J. Peters, R. Johnson, M. Hayden, and S. A. Montzka, 2016: Radiation and atmospheric circulation controls on carbonyl sulfide concentrations in the marine boundary layer. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121(21), 13113-13128.

Berthet, G., et al., 2017: Impact of a moderate volcanic eruption on chemistry in the lower stratosphere: balloon-borne observations and model calculations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17(3), 2229-2253, doi:10.5194/acp-17-2229-2017.

Brühl, C., J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, M. Höpfner, and N. Glatthor, 2015: Stratospheric sulfur and its implications for radiative forcing simulated by the chemistry climate model EMAC. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 2103–2118, doi:10.1002/2014JD022430.

Campbell, J. E., M. E. Whelan, U. Seibt, S. J. Smith, J. A. Berry, and T. W. Hilton, 2015: Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 3004-3010, doi:10.1002/2015GL063445.

Campbell, P., M. Mills, and T. Deshler, 2014: The global extent of the mid stratospheric CN layer: A three-dimensional modeling study. J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi:10.1002/2013JD020503.

Campbell, P., and T. Deshler, 2014: Condensation nuclei measurements in the midlatitude (1982–2012) and Antarctic (1986–2010) stratosphere between 20 and 35 km. J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi:10.1002/2013JD019710.

Canty, T., N. R. Mascioli, M. D. Smarte, and R. J. Salawitch, 2013: An empirical model of global climate – Part 1: A critical evaluation of volcanic cooling. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3997-4031, 2013,, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3997-2013.

Carboni, E., R. G. Grainger, T. A. Mather, D. M. Pyle, G. E. Thomas, R. Siddans, A. J. A. Smith, A. Dudhia, M. E. Koukouli, and D. Balis, 2016: The vertical distribution of volcanic SO2 plumes measured by IASI. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(7), 4343-4367.

Carn, S. A., L. Clarisse, and A. J. Prata, 2016: Multi-decadal satellite measurements of global volcanic degassing. J. Volc. Geoth. Res., 311, 99-134.

Carn, S. A., V. E. Fioletov, C. A. McLinden, C. Li, and N. A. Krotkov, 2017: A decade of global volcanic SO2 emissions measured from space. Sci. Rep., 7, 44095, doi:10.1038/srep44095.

Chane Ming, F., D. Vignelles, F. Jegou, G. Berthet, J.-B. Renard, F. Gheusi, and Y. Kuleshov, 2016: Gravity-wave effects on tracer gases and stratospheric aerosol concentrations during the 2013 ChArMEx campaign. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(12), 8023-8042.

Cook, T., 2016: A decade of progress in stratospheric aerosol research. Eos, 97, doi:10.1029/2016EO050721.

Damadeo, R. P., J. M. Zawodny, and L. W. Thomason, 2014: Reevaluation of stratospheric ozone trends from SAGE II data using a simultaneous temporal and spatial analysis. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14(24), 13455-13470.

Damadeo, R. P., J. M. Zawodny, L. W. Thomason, and N. Iyer, 2013: SAGE Version 7.0 Algorithm: Application to SAGE II. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3539-3561, doi:10.5194/amt-6-3539-2013.

Dhomse, S S, K. M. Emmerson, G. W. Mann, N. Bellouin, K. S. Carslaw, M. P. Chipperfield, R. Hommel, N. L. Abraham, P. Telford, P. Braesicke, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, F. O’Connor, O. Morgenstern, J. A. Pyle, T. Deshler, J. M. Zawodny, and L. W. Thomason, 2014: Aerosol microphysics simulations of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption with the UM-UKCA composition-climate model. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11221–11246.

Du, Q. Q., C. Zhang, Y. Mu, Y. Cheng, Y. Zhang, C. Liu, M. Song, D. Tian, P. Liu, J. Liu, C. Xue, and C. Ye,  2016: An important missing source of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: Domestic coal combustion. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(16), 8720-8727.

English, J. M., O. B. Toon, and M. J. Mills, 2013: Microphysical simulations of large volcanic eruptions: Pinatubo and Toba. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1880–1895, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50196.

Ferraro, A. J., and H. G. Griffiths, 2016: Quantifying the temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on global-mean precipitation in a multi-model ensemble. Env. Res. Lett., 11(3), 034012.

Fioletov, V. E., C. A. McLinden, N. Krotkov, C. Li, J. Joiner, N. Theys, S. Carn, and M. D. Moran, 2016: A global catalogue of large SO2 sources and emissions derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(18), 11497-11519.

Friberg J., B. G. Martinsson, S. M. Andersson, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, M. Hermann, P. F. J. van Velthoven and A. Zahn, 2014: Sources of increase in LMS sulfurous and carbonaceous aerosol background concentrations during 1999 – 2008 derived from CARIBIC flights. Tellus, 66, 23428, doi:10.3402/tellusb.v66.23428.

Friberg J., B.G. Martinsson, M.K. Sporre, S.M. Andersson, C.A.M. Brenninkmeijer, M. Hermann, P.F.J. van Velthoven, and A. Zahn, 2015: Influence of volcanic eruptions on midlatitude upper tropospheric aerosol and consequences for cirrus clouds. Earth and Space Science, 2, doi: 10.1002/2015EA000110, 2015.

Fromm, M., G. Kablick, G. Nedoluha, E. Carboni, R. Grainger, J. Campbell, and J. Lewis, 2014: Correcting the record of volcanic stratospheric aerosol impact: Nabro and Sarychev Peak. J. Geophys. Res., 119(17), 10,343-310, 364.

Garny, H. and W. J. Randel, 2013: Dynamic variability of the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed in potential vorticity and correlations with tracer distributions. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 13,421–13,433, doi:10.1002/2013JD020908.

Glatthor, N., et al., 2017: Global carbonyl sulfide (OCS) measured by MIPAS/Envisat during 2002–2012. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17(4), 2631-2652, doi:10.5194/acp-17-2631-2017.

Griessbach, S., L. Hoffmann, R. Spang, M. von Hobe, R. Müller, and M. Riese, 2016: Infrared limb emission measurements of aerosol in the troposphere and stratosphere. Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9(9), 4399-4423.

Gu, Y. X., H. Liao, and J. C. Bian, 2016: Summertime nitrate aerosol in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the South Asian summer monsoon region. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(11), 6641-6663.

Guillet, S., et al., 2017: Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records. Nat. Geosci., 10(2), 123-128, doi:10.1038/ngeo2875.

Haywood, J. M., Jones, A. and G. S. Jones, 2013: The impact of volcanic eruptions in the period 2000-2013 on global mean temperature trends evaluated in the HadGEM2-ES climate model. Atmos. Sci. Lett., 15(2), 92-96, doi:10.1002/asl2.471.

Heng, Y., L. Hoffmann, S. Griessbach, T. Rößler, and O. Stein, 2016: Inverse transport modeling of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions using large-scale simulations. Geosci. Model Dev., 9(4), 1627-1645.

Hervig, M. E., C. G. Bardeen, D. E. Siskind, M. J. Mills, and R. Stockwell, 2017: Meteoric smoke and H2SO4 aerosols in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44(2), 1150-1157, DOI: 10.1002/2016GL072049.

Hoffmann, L., T. Rößler, S. Griessbach, Y. Heng, and O. Stein, 2016: Lagrangian transport simulations of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions: Impact of meteorological data products. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121(9), 4651-4673.

Höpfner, M., N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, J. Orphal, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, and C. D. Boone, 2013: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) as observed by MIPAS/Envisat: temporal development and spatial distribution at 15-45 km altitude. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10405-10423, doi:10.5194/acp-13-10405-2013.

Höpfner, M., C. D. Boone, B. Funke, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, A. Günther, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, H. C. Pumphrey, W. G. Read, A. Roiger, G. Stiller, H. Schlager, T. von Clarmann, and K. Wissmüller, 2015: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7017-7037, doi:10.5194/acp-15-7017-2015.

Iacovino, K., K. Ju-Song, T. Sisson, J. Lowenstern, R. Kuk-Hun, J. Jong-Nam, S. Kun-Ho, H. Song-Hwan, C. Oppenheimer, J. O. S. Hammond, A. Donovan, K. W. Liu, and R. Kum-Ran, 2016: Quantifying gas emissions from the “Millennium Eruption” of Paektu volcano, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea/China. Sci. Adv., 2(11), DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600913

Irvine, P. J., B. Kravitz, M. G. Lawrence, and H. Muri, 2016: An overview of the Earth system science of solar geoengineering. Wires Clim. Change, 7(6), 815-833.

Irvine, P. J., et al., 2017: Towards a comprehensive climate impacts assessment of solar geoengineering. Earth’s Future, 5(1), 93-106, DOI: 10.1002/2016EF000389.

Ivy, D. J., S. Solomon, D. Kinnison, M. J. Mills, A. Schmidt, and R. R. Neely, 2017: The influence of the Calbuco eruption on the 2015 Antarctic ozone hole in a fully coupled chemistry-climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, DOI: 10.1002/2016GL071925.

Jégou F., G. Berthet, C. Brogniez, J.-B. Renard, P. François, J.M. Haywood, A. Jones, Q. Bourgeois, T. Lurton, F. Auriol, S. Godin-Beekmann, C. Guimbaud, G. Krysztofiak, B. Gaubicher, M. Chartier, L. Clarisse, C. Clerbaux, J.-Y. Balois, C. Verwaerde, and D. Daugeron, 2013: Stratospheric aerosols from the Sarychev volcano eruption in the 2009 Arctic summer. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6533-6552, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6533-2013.

Jones, A. C., J. M. Haywood, A. Jones, and V. Aquila, 2016: Sensitivity of volcanic aerosol dispersion to meteorological conditions: A Pinatubo case study. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 121(12), 6892-6908.

Jones, A. C., J. M. Haywood, and A. Jones, 2016: Climatic impacts of stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate, black carbon and titania injection. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16(5), 2843-2862.

Kashimura, H., M. Abe, S. Watanabe, T. Sekiya, D. Ji, J. C. Moore, J. N. S. Cole, and B. Kravitz, 2017: Shortwave radiative forcing, rapid adjustment, and feedback to the surface by sulfate geoengineering: analysis of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project G4 scenario. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17(5), 3339-3356, doi:10.5194/acp-17-3339-2017.

Khaykin, S. M., et al., 2017: Variability and evolution of the midlatitude stratospheric aerosol budget from 22 years of ground-based lidar and satellite observations. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17(3), 1829-1845, doi:10.5194/acp-17-1829-2017.

Kleinschmitt, C., O. Boucher, S. Bekki, F. Lott, and U. Platt, under review: LMDz-S3A-v1: A sectional stratospheric sulphate aerosol in the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model. Geosci. Model Dev., doi:10.5194/gmd-2017-31

Kooijmans, L. M. J., N. A. M. Uitslag, M. S. Zahniser, D. D. Nelson, S. A. Montzka, and H. L. Chen, 2016: Continuous and high-precision atmospheric concentration measurements of COS, CO2, CO and H2O using a quantum cascade laser spectrometer (QCLS). Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9(11), 5293-5314.

Kovilakam, M., and T. Deshler, 2015: On the accuracy of stratospheric aerosol extinction derived from in situ size distribution measurements and surface area density derived from remote SAGE II and HALOE extinction measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 120, 8426–8447, doi:10.1002/2015JD023303.

Kravitz, B., A. Robock, S. Tilmes, O. Boucher, J.M. English, P. J. Irvine, A. Jones, M. G. Lawrence, M. MacCracken, H. Muri, J. C. Moore, U. Niemeier, S. J. Phipps, J. Sillmann, T. Storelvmo, H. Wang, and S. Watanabe, 2015: The Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (GeoMIP6): Simulation Design and Preliminary Results. Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3379-3392, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3379-2015.

Kremser, S., et al., 2016: Stratospheric aerosol – Observations, processes, and impact on climate. Rev. Geophys., 54(2), doi:10.1002/2015rg000511.

Krysztofiak, G., Y. Té, V. Catoire, F. Jégou, and G. Berthet, 2014: Carbonyl sulfide variability with latitude in the atmosphere. Atmosphere-Ocean, 53, 1-13, QOS 2012 special issue, doi: 10.1080/07055900.2013.876609.

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Lejeune, B., E. Mahieu, M. K. Vollmer, S. Reimann, P. F. Bernath, C. D. Boone, K. A. Walker, and C. Servais, 2017: Optimized approach to retrieve information on atmospheric, carbonyl sulfide (OCS) above the Jungfraujoch station and change in its abundance since 1995. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf., 186, 81-95,

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SPARC activity updates:

SPARC Newsletter No. 47, 2016, p. 31: The 2nd Workshop on Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate, by S. Kremser and L. Thomason

SPARC Newsletter No. 43, 2014, p. 25: Report on the 1st Stratospheric Sulfur and its Role in Climate Workshop, by L. Thomason, S. Kremser, M. Rex, C. Timmreck, and J.-P. Vernier

SPARC Newsletter No. 39, 2012, p. 37: Stratospheric Sulphur and its Role in Climate (SSiRC), by M. Rex, C. Timmreck, S. Kremser, L. Thomason, J.-P. Vernier

SPARC, 2006: SPARC Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties (ASAP). L. Thomason and Th. Peter (Eds.), SPARC Report No. 4, WCRP-124, WMO/TD – No. 1295, available at

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