CFC-11 Symposium 25-27 March 2019, Vienna, Austria

+++ NOTE: The Symposium will take place as scheduled for March 25-27.  No need to reschedule +++

Table of Contents:

General information
Meeting Schedule
Information on Attendance and Registration
Organising & Scientific Programme Committee
Travel information (incl. list hotels)  (download PDF, 0.3MB)

Download meeting announcement (PDF, 0.3 MB)

Meeting presentations & Abstracts (password required)

The Montreal Protocol was designed to protect the stratospheric ozone layer by reducing the  abundances of ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the  atmosphere. The measures taken were successful with the abundance of ODS peaking in the  late 1990s and continuously decreasing since that time. However, in a recent letter to Nature, Montzka et al. (2018) reported an unexpected and persistent global emission increase of 13,000  tonnes of CFC-11, both a powerful ozone-depleting substance and a powerful greenhouse gas.  This study combined decade-long time-series of CFC-11 from various continents with a suite of  two- and three-dimensional model simulations. It concluded that emissions from eastern Asia had increased, although increases in other regions were not ruled out. It also suggested that  the CFC-11 emission increase arises from new production that has not been reported to the  Ozone Secretariat of the United Nations Environment Programme.

The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for scientists and technologists to explore  and present information on the potential causes of the increased CFC-11 emissions. This  information will provide a firmer scientific basis for discussions amongst the Parties of the  Montreal Protocol in the coming years. The Symposium is open to discussions on all aspects of  CFC-11 and related compounds, from production to atmospheric loss, along with  environmental impact of the molecule.

Topics include, but are not exclusive:
Pathways by which CFC-11 is produced primarily, or inadvertently, along with feedstocks  for that production (e.g., CCl4) and co-produced compounds (e.g., CFC-12).
Feedstock usages of CFC-11
Primary usages of CFC-11, both historical and current
Emission sources for CFC-11 and related compounds, their magnitudes, and timescales  for CFC-11 release.
Analysis of compounds that can be used to trace atmospheric transport of CFC-11
Bottom-up estimates of global and regional CFC-11 emissions
Atmospheric observations, sampling techniques, and analysis of CFC-11 and related  compounds (ground, aircraft, satellite)
Top-down emission estimates of global and regional CFC-11 emissions
Lifetime estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-11 loss processes
Ozone depletion from the increased emissions to date, and projected for the future
Other environmental impact of the increased emissions, including increases of UV and climate.

Meeting schedule

Day 1 – Monday, March 25th 2019

Time Authors Title
10:00 Newman Greeting & Purpose
10:20 Montzka Atmospheric measurements of CFC-11 through 2018: Are global CFC-11 emissions back on the decline? [Password protected PDF]
10:40 Park Identifying potential CFC-11 emission sources in China based on atmospheric observations from 2008 to  2016
11:00   Break
11:40 Western Estimates of CFC-11 emissions from eastern Asia based on atmospheric measurements and inverse
12:00 Adcock, Reeves, et al. The origin of high concentrations of CFC-11 observed in Taiwan
12:20 Arduini CFC measurements from Nepal Climate Observatory – Pyramid (Nepal), GAW global station
12:40   Lunch break
14:00 Bennish  Aircraft Measurements of Elevated CFC-11 Concentrations over the North China Plain in Spring 2016 [Password protected PDF]
14:20 Dang, Guo Long-term spatiotemporal variations and source changes of halocarbons in the greater Pearl River Delta region, China
14:40 Fang Rapid increase in ozone-depleting CHCl3 emissions from eastern China
15:00 Simpson Recent CFC-11 enhancements in China, Korea, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan
15:20   Break
16:00  Tope, Campbell,
Understanding the production of CFC-11, associated chemicals, and related emissions
16:20 Walter-Terrinoni Foam Uses
16:40 Kuijpers, Clodic, Lord, Polonara
CFC refrigerant banks and emissions 1990-2010-2018
16:50 Jose Pons Aerosol, solvent and other misc uses of CFC-11 and CFC-12
17:00 Fahey & Pyle Day 1 Wrap-up Discussion

Day 2 – Tuesday March 26th

Time Authors Title
09:00 Reimann & Simpson  Summary of 1. Asian measurements and modeling
09:20 Sherry Production pathways and usages of CFC-11 from carbon tetrachloride 
09:40 Perry Understanding and Mitigating the Impacts of Illegal CFC-11 Use in the Production of Polyurethane Foams 
10:00 Reimann Additional CFC-11 emissions: Foam is the only answer, is it? [Password protected PDF]
10:20   Break
 11:00  Solomon Evaluation of Chlorofluorocarbon Banks, Uncertainties, and Implications for Emissions
11:20 Daniel A path towards more useful future CFC scenarios 
11:40 Walter-Terrinoni, Theodoridi, Tope,
Emissions & Hypothetical Release Scenarios
12:00 Kuijpers, Ashford,
Clodie, Lord
Considering total bottom-up emissions and comparisons with top-down numbers
12:20 Lunch break
13:40 Fraser Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) emissions in Australia: 1962-2017 [Password protected PDF]
14:00 Manning Estimating CFC-11 emissions over Western Europe from atmospheric observations
14:20 Schuck New Long-term Measurements of CFC-11 and other halocarbons at Taunus Observatory [Password protected PDF]
14:40 Vollmer Increasing Emissions of Montreal Protocol Substances Other than CFC-11 [Password protected PDF]
15:00 Prather Understanding the role of the stratosphere on the lifetime and surface variability of CFC-11
15:20 Break
16:00 Reeves & Hu Summary 2. Bottom-up emissions and Production Processes
16:20 Laube Distributions and correlations of CFC-11 and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere
16:40 Portmann Interannual Stratospheric Transport Variability Impacts on Surface Trace Gas Concentrations
17:00 Solomon & Safari Day 2 Wrap-up Discussion

Day 3 – Wednesday March 27th

Time Authors  Title
09:00 Tope & Maione Summary of 3. Non-Asian Measurements and modelling [Password protected PDF]
09:20 Mueller Stratospheric loss of Stratospheric loss of CFC-11 and age-of-air in the Chemical Lagrangian model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS)
09:40 Sheese Recent changes in CFCs in the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere from the ACE-FTS satellite
10:00 Laeng On natural atmospheric variability of CFC-11 [Password protected PDF]
10:20 Break
11:00 Park & Daniel Summary of 4. Interannual variability and transport
11:20 Keeble The Impact of Recent East Asian Emissions of CFC-11 on Ozone Recovery
11:40 Fleming, Newman, et al. The impact of continuing emissions of CFC-11 on the stratospheric ozone layer 
12:00 Nützel Implications of constant CFC-11 concentrations for the future ozone layer
12:20   Lunch break
13:40  Liang GEOSCCM simulations of the Antarctic ozone hole changes due to continuing CFC-11 emissions 
14:00 Chipperfield Determination of the Sources and Implications of Increased CFC-11 Emissions using Inverse and Forward 3-D modelling
14:20 Eleftheratos A note on possible effects of the unexpected increase in global CFC-11 to ozone profiles and erythemal doses at ground level [Password protected PDF]
14:40 Break
15:20 Kurylo & GodinBeekmann Summary of 5. Ozone Impacts, modeling, and trends
15:40 Weiss, Jucks, Manning, Chipperfield Summary on needed observations and research gaps [Password protected PDF]
16:00 Newman & Harris Final Discussion and Next Steps

Attendance Application and Registration:
Registration and abstract submission will provisionally open on October 25, 2018 and close on  January 14 2019. More details on the timing and procedure will be announced in the coming  weeks.  The Symposium is limited to 100 persons. Hence, attendance will be approved by the Scientific  Steering Committee if applications are oversubscribed. Priorities on attendance will be based upon (a) whether an applicant has submitted an accepted abstract and (b) their technical and scientific interests and standing.
Limited travel funding will be available for attendance, again subject to priorities outlined  above.

Symposium Venue:
Vienna International Centre
United Nations Office at Vienna Wagramerstrasse 5
1400 Vienna

If you are interested in attending, please email Ms. Susan McFadden (),  and Symposium notifications will be emailed to you as registration and abstract submissions open.

Organizing Committee:

Geir  Braathen (WMO), Neil Harris (SPARC), Paul Newman (SAP), Bella Maranion (TEAP), Sophia Mylona (Ozone Secretariat)

Scientific Programme Committee:

Tina Birmpili (Ozone Secretariat), Geir Braathen (WMO), Neil Harris (SPARC), Jianxin Hu (Univ. Beijing), Ken Jucks (NASA), Paul Newman (SAP), Bella Maranion (TEAP), Steve Montzka (NOAA), Sophia Mylona (Ozone Secretariat), Sun Young Park (Korea), Stefan Reimann (Empa), Matt Rigby (Univ. Bristol), Takuya Saito (Japan), Helen Tope (TEAP)

Registration has closed on January 15 2019, 00:00h.

Travel information

(download PDF, 0.3MB)

1) Meeting Venue:

Vienna International Centre
United Nations Office at Vienna
Wagramerstrasse 5
1400 Vienna

2) List of Hotels:
A list of recommended hotels located near the meeting venue can be found at the following link:
Hotel list – Vienna

This is a list of 28 Hotels of various categories. The following four hotels are within 5-20 min walking distance of the venue:


Participants are responsible for making their own bookings for hotel accommodation directly with hotels and are advised to do so as soon as possible in order to take advantage of preferred accommodation and because of other events taking place in Vienna at the same time. Participants are advised to request the United Nations rate when making bookings in order to benefit from preferred rates.

3) Visa information:
Visa requirements to enter Austria vary greatly between nationalities and it is therefore essential to check visa requirements before travelling. Visas must be obtained prior to arrival in the country and it is the responsibility of each participant to obtain the required entry visa to Austria. Please note that a Schengen visa is required, even for transiting through Schengen-zone European countries.

4) Health requirements and medical facilities:
Visitors to Austria are required to pay for health services. Participants travelling to Austria are therefore strongly advised to obtain medical insurance before leaving their home country. The Secretariat will not assume responsibility for health-care services for meeting participants in Austria.

No immunizations are required to enter Austria, although participants are advised to make sure that their tetanus, diphtheria and polio vaccinations are up to date before travelling.

First-aid and emergency services will be available at the venue throughout the meeting and a United Nations joint medical services clinic is located at the venue. The closest hospital to the venue is located at the following address:

Vienna General Hospital
(Allgemeines Krankenhaus)
Währinger Gürtel 18-20
1090 Wien
Tel: (+43 1) 40400-01964 or 3954

5) Local transportation and safety:

a) Local transportation
Participants are responsible for making their own arrangements for transportation to and from the airport and their hotels and the Vienna International Centre.

An airport bus service operates between the Vienna International Airport and Morzinplatz (U1/U4 metro station at Schwedenplatz) at a cost of 8 euros for a single journey, including luggage. Journey time is approximately 20 minutes. Buses leave the airport for Morzinplatz at 1.20 a.m. and 2.50 a.m., then every 30 minutes from 4.50 a.m. to 12.20 a.m. Buses leave Morzinplatz for the airport at 12.30 a.m. and 2 a.m., then every 30 minutes from 4 a.m. to 11.30 p.m.

There is also a bus service between the Vienna International Centre (next to the Kaisermühlen/Vienna International Centre station on the U1 metro line) and Vienna International Airport. The fare is 8 euros for a one-way ticket and 13 euros for a return ticket, and the travel time is approximately 20-45 minutes, depending on the time of day of travel. Buses leave the airport for the Vienna International Centre every hour from 7.10 a.m. to 8.10 p.m. and leave the conference centre for the airport every hour from 6.10 a.m. to 7.10 p.m.

The City Airport Train (CAT) transports passengers between the CAT terminal in Vienna (the Wien Mitte/Landstrasse station on U3 and U4 metro lines) and Vienna International Airport. The fare is 12 euros for a one-way ticket and 19 euros for a return ticket, and the travel time is approximately 16 minutes. Trains leave the airport for Wien Mitte/Landstrasse every 30 minutes from 6.06 a.m. to 11.36 p.m. and leave Wien Mitte/Landstrasse for the airport every 30 minutes from 5.36 a.m. to 11.06 p.m.

To access the Vienna International Centre from the city centre, take underground line U1 in the direction of Leopoldau until you reach Kaisermühlen/Vienna International Centre, then follow the signs to Gate 1 of the Vienna International Centre, the main entrance. The conference centre is also easy to reach by car via the A22 motorway or from the city centre via the Reichsbrücke.

b) Useful links

c) Safety
Although Vienna is a comparatively safe place and violent crime is rare, there are incidences of pickpocketing and minor theft. Participants are advised to pay particular attention at the airport, around the railway station and in busy areas of the city, and not to leave their luggage unattended at any time.

Emergency phone numbers are:
General emergency: 112
Fire: 122
Police: 133
Ambulance: 144

6) Local currency
The currency of Austria is the Euro. Bank Austria-Creditanstalt has branches on the first floor of the C-Building and on the entrance level of the D-Building of the conference centre, which provide full banking services. Opening hours are from 9.00 a.m. to 3.00 p.m. on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday and from 9.00 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. on Thursday.

7) Official language
The official language of Austria is German, with most citizens speaking at least one other language. English is widely spoken.

8) Other practical information

a) Phone access codes
The country code for Austria is 43 and the area code for Vienna is 1.

b) Electrical power supply
The electric power in Vienna is 220-240 volts, running at 50Hz, and the primary socket types are Schuko and Europlug (see figure below). Delegates are strongly encouraged to carry their own electrical adapters for use with laptops and other electrical appliances, as the Secretariat will not be able to provide them.

c) SIM cards for cellular phones
Local SIM cards that can be used with unlocked phones are available from any post office or news stand. A valid passport is required for purchase.

d) Post office, telephones and faxes
A post office on the first floor of the C-Building of the Vienna International Centre (ext. 4986) provides all regular postal services, including a fax service, from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Monday to Friday.

e) Restaurants and cafes
The cafeteria is located on the ground floor of the F-Building. It is open on weekdays from 7.30 a.m. to 10 a.m. for breakfast and from 11.30 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. for lunch. The coffee corner in the cafeteria is open from 8.30 a.m. to 3.30 p.m.

The coffee areas in the M-Building and the C-Building (C07) are open from 9 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Monday to Friday. The coffee corner near to the plenary hall will be open from 8.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. daily.

The coffee corner in the C-Building (C04) (offering a new sandwich concept and premium coffee) is open from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m.

The cocktail lounge/bar is located in the F-building. It is open from 11.30 a.m. to 8 p.m. Monday to Thursday and from 11.30 a.m. to 9 p.m. on Friday.

The à la carte fine dining restaurant is located in the F-building (entrance through the cocktail lounge/bar). It is open from 11.30 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. (reservations are strongly recommended; please send requests by email to no later than 11.30 a.m. on the day that the booking is required).

Additional information, including the weekly cafeteria menu and the restaurant menu, can be found at the following link: