SPARC Report No.2

SPARC Report N°2 (2000) Upper Tropospheric and Stratospheric Water Vapour

Edited by D. Kley, J.M. Russell III and C. Phillips

WCRP – 113
WMO/TD – No. 1043
SPARC Report No.2

Summary  1.5 MB

Full Report 12.9 MB


Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Instrumentation and Data Sets

Lead Authors: Ellis E. Remsberg and Cornelius Schiller

1.1 Introduction

1.2 In situ hygrometers

1.2.1 Frost point hygrometers

1.2.2 Lyman-a hygrometers

1.2.3 Tuneable diode laser spectrometers

1.2.4 Radiosondes

1.2.5 MOZAIC sensors

1.2.6 Cryogenic samplers

1.3 Ground based, balloon-borne, and airborne remote sensing instruments

1.3.1 Microwave instruments

1.3.2 LIDAR

1.3.3 Infrared and far-infrared measurements

1.4 Satellite sensors

1.4.1 Operational satellite upper tropospheric humidity

1.4.2 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS)

1.4.3 Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II

1.4.4 Atmospheric Trace MOlecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS)

1.4.5 Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE)

1.4.6 Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) – lower stratosphere

1.4.7 Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) – upper troposphere

1.4.8 Millimeter-wave atmospheric sounder (MAS)

1.4.9 Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS)

1.4.10 Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III

1.5 Summary and conclusions


Chapter 2. Data Quality

Lead Authors: Samuel J. Oltmans and Karen H. Rosenlof

2.1. Introduction

2.2 Comparisons between aircraft-borne, balloon-borne, and ground-based sensors

2.2.1 Stratospheric measurements

2.2.2 Laboratory intercomparison of the NOAA-CMDL, NOAA-AL, and Harvard in situ instruments

2.2.3 Balloon infrared instrument comparisons

2.2.4 Tropospheric measurements

2.3 Comparisons made for the validation of satellite measurements

2.3.1 HALOE comparisons

2.3.2 MLS comparisons

2.3.3 SAGE II comparisons

2.3.4 ATMOS comparisons

2.3.5 ILAS comparisons

2.3.6 Upper stratosphere comparisons (WVMS and WASPAM)

2.3.7 Comparisons with TOVS/HIRS

2.3.8 MLS tropospheric comparisons

2.4 Comparisons between satellite systems

2.4.1 ATMOS Comparisons

2.4.2 MLS with HALOE

2.4.3 POAM III with HALOE

2.4.4 ILAS with HALOE

2.4.5 TOVS/HIRS upper tropospheric comparisons

2.5 Comparisons of derived quantities

2.5.1 SAGE II and HALOE annual averages

2.5.2 Satellite seasonal climatology comparisons

2.5.3 Lowermost stratosphere in situ and satellite climatologies

2.5.4 Entry level [H2O]e and 2 CH4+H2O

2.5.5 Comparison of water vapour long-term changes and seasonal oscillations

2.6 Summary of comparisons

2.6.1 Stratospheric comparisons

2.6.2 Upper tropospheric humidity comparisons

2.6.3 Conclusions and recommendations


Chapter 3. Distribution and variability of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

Lead Authors: Andrew Gettelman, John E. Harries and Philip W. Mote

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1 Radiation

3.1.2 Dynamics

3.1.3 Chemistry

3.2 Mean Distribution of LS/UT Water Vapour

3.2.1 Lower stratosphere

3.2.2 Upper troposphere

3.3 Seasonal Cycle

3.3.1 Lower stratosphere

3.3.2 Upper troposphere

3.3.3 The tropical tropopause region

3.4 Non-seasonal Variations

3.4.1 Interannual variations

3.4.2 Intraseasonal variations

3.4.3 Transient variability

3.5 Long-term variations

3.5.1 Stratospheric measurements

3.5.2 Tropospheric measurements

3.5.3 Causes of long-term variations

3.5.4 Consequences of long-term variations

3.6 Conclusions

3.6.1. Long-term variations

3.6.2. Recommendations





I. Co-chairs, Authors, Contributors and Reviewers

II. Acronyms and Abbreviations

III. WCRP Reports